The Rock, seat of the City hallThe name of the village which means little Florence, was suggested by the historian Giovanni Villani (14th century),who also realized the coat-of-arms figuring the arms of Florence (the lily) on one half and the arms of the people (the red cross in a white field) on the other.
The village was once enclosed within the castle walls, which is opened by two mediaeval gates at the South and North. The gates have been widened in 1874; Porta Fiorentina with an ancient bell, and Porta Bolognese.
The castle of Firenzuola was built in 1332 by the Republic of Florence to put a stop to the power of the family Ubaldini. Here, as in Scarperia, the structure of the village is rectangular with the main road that goes from one gate to the other and with two side squares. In 1342 the Ubaldini set fire to Firenzuola. Once the reconstruction started, the wooden huts within the walls were again set on fire by the Ubaldini in 1351 and by the troops of the Visconti from Milan. In 1361 the road across the Pass of the Giogo was opened and this contributed a lot to the prosperity of the village. A hospice dedicated to S. Jacopo was founded for travellers and pilgrims. The "Rocca" was built on one of the side squares in 1371. The head of the village lived here. One of them was Michele di Lando, the leader of the revolt of the Ciompi in Florence (1378). But the origin of the Commune of Firezuola goes back to 1373. In the following years the village was the centre of struggles that brought the assertion of Florence upon Tuscan Romagna. In the 15th century it was nearly completely rebuilt by Lorenzo il Magnifico and for a certain period it was ruled by Niccolò Machiavelli.
With the coming of the Napoleonic Rule in 1811, Firenzuola and its territory were annexed to the district of Modigliana (in Romagna), but later the Grand-ducal rule brought it back under the Florentine dominion. In 1954-55 the village was infested by a serious cholera epidemic. During the Second World War it was nearly totally destroyed (1944) but today it is completely reconstructed.